Insect Shield® Repellent Apparel has been proven and registered to repel mosquitoes, ticks, ants, flies, chiggers, and midges (no-see-ums). The EPA requires extensive effectiveness data to prove a product's ability to repel insects. Many species and varieties of these insects have been tested, including those that can carry dangerous diseases and is effective up to 70 washings. The active ingredient; Permethrin is a man-made version of a natural insect repellent found in certain chrysanthemum plants. The Insect Shield process binds a proprietary permethrin formula tightly to fabric fibers—resulting in effective, odorless insect protection that lasts beyond the expected lifetime of apparel.